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List of monarchs of Korea

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The List of Monarchs of Korea provides a insightful look at the development of Korea since its legendary founding in 2333 B.C.E. until the end of the last royal dynasty in 1910 C.E. If, indeed, the history of Korea has been continual from those legendary beginnings, Korea has experienced one of the longest continual dynastic developments in history. We have clear evidence that Koreans are the most homogeneous people on the earth, so we can well expect that their history has been unbroken. Rather than a linear development of one dynasty succeeding another, Korean history from 2333 B.C.E. until the beginning of the Goryeo dynasty in the 930s, over 3000 years, had been kingdoms coexisting yet clashing for dominance. From the 930s to 1910, nearly 1000 years, Korea experienced a single dynasty ruling the entire Korean Peninsula.

The following list of monarchs has been categorized by historical era beginning with the most ancient and concluding with the most recent. Monarchs' names are listed either romanized posthumous (according to the South Korean Revised Romanization of Korean) or temple names along with the dates of their reign. Articles about the individual monarchs include the McCune-Reischauer romanizations.

King Wang Geon, first king of Gorye Dynasty, Korea 王建像

Gojoseon

The legendary Dangun founded the first kingdom, Gojoseon (c.2333 B.C.E. - 108 B.C.E.) in 2333 B.C.E., although historians debate the founding years. Gojoseon may have numbered among the small peninsular states which emerged "by the fourth century B.C.E."1 Lee mentions Gojoseon emerged in the Liao and Taedong valleys by the fourth century.2 Some, like Kim regard "Dangun Joseon" as having possibly existed during the Neolithic period,3 i.e. before the thirteenth century B.C.E.; by the same token they reject the possibility that Gojoseon existed as a "state" or even "tribal confederation" in the modern sense. Professor Yoon writes that the Gojoseon had become an ancient nation at 2333 B.C.E. which is the most recent research.4 Bronze age archaeological evidence of Gojoseon culture has been found in northern Korea and southern Manchuria. By the fourth century B.C.E., historical and archaeological evidence supports that Gojoseon flourished as a kingdom.

Gyuwon Sahwa (1675) describes The Annals of the Danguns as a collection of nationalistic legends. Scholars widely question the authenticity of the Hwandan Gogi that lists different years of reign.

See also List of legendary monarchs of Korea.

Dangun-Joseon

The legendary monarchs listed in Gyuwon Sahwa:

  1. Dangun Wanggeom 왕검 (B.C. 2333-B.C. 2240)
  2. Buru 부루 (B.C. 2240-B.C. 2206)
  3. Gareuk 가륵 (B.C. 2206-B.C. 2155)
  4. Osa 오사 (B.C. 2155-B.C. 2106)
  5. Gueul 구을 (B.C. 2106-B.C. 2071)
  6. Dalmun 달문 (B.C. 2071-B.C. 2039)
  7. Hanyul 한율 (B.C. 2039-B.C. 2014)
  8. Seohan 서한 (B.C. 2014-B.C. 1957)
  9. Asul 아술 (B.C. 1957-B.C. 1929)
  10. Noeul 노을 (B.C. 1929-B.C. 1906)
  11. Dohae 도해 (B.C. 1906-B.C. 1870)
  12. Ahan 아한 (B.C. 1870-B.C. 1843)
  13. Heuldal 흘달 (B.C. 1843-B.C. 1800)
  14. Gobul 고불 (B.C. 1800-B.C. 1771)
  15. Beoreum 벌음 (B.C. 1771-B.C. 1738)
  16. Wina 위나 (B.C. 1738-B.C. 1720)
  17. Yeoeul 여을 (B.C. 1720-B.C. 1657)
  18. Dongeom 동엄 (B.C. 1657-B.C. 1637)
  19. Gumoso 구모소 (B.C. 1637-B.C. 1612)
  20. Gohol 고홀 (B.C. 1612-B.C. 1601)
  21. Sotae 소태 (B.C. 1601-B.C. 1568)
  22. Saekbullu 색불루 (B.C. 1568-B.C. 1551)
  23. Amul 아물 (B.C. 1551-B.C. 1532)
  24. Yeonna 연나 (B.C. 1532-B.C. 1519)
  25. Solla 솔나 (B.C. 1519-B.C. 1503)
  26. Churo 추로 (B.C. 1503-B.C. 1494)
  27. Dumil 두밀 (B.C. 1494-B.C. 1449)
  28. Haemo 해모 (B.C. 1449-B.C. 1427)
  29. Mahyu 마휴 (B.C. 1427-B.C. 1418)
  30. Nahyu 내휴 (B.C. 1418-B.C. 1365)
  31. Deungol 등올 (B.C. 1365-B.C. 1359)
  32. Chumil 추밀 (B.C. 1359-B.C. 1351)
  33. Gammul 감물 (B.C. 1351-B.C. 1342)
  34. Orumun 오루문 (B.C. 1342-B.C. 1322)
  35. Sabeol 사벌 (B.C. 1322-B.C. 1311)
  36. Maereuk 매륵 (B.C. 1311-B.C. 1293)
  37. Mamul 마물 (B.C. 1293-B.C. 1285)
  38. Damul 다물 (B.C. 1285-B.C. 1266)
  39. Duhol 두홀 (B.C. 1266-B.C. 1238)
  40. Dareum 달음 (B.C. 1238-B.C. 1224)
  41. Eumcha 음차 (B.C. 1224-B.C. 1205)
  42. Euruji 을우지 B.C. 1205-B.C. 1196)
  43. Mulli 물리 (B.C. 1196-B.C. 1181)
  44. Guhol 구홀 (B.C. 1181-B.C. 1174)
  45. Yeoru 여루 (B.C. 1174-B.C. 1169)
  46. Boeul 보을 (B.C. 1169-B.C. 1158)
  47. Goyeolga 고열가 (B.C. 1158-B.C. 1128)

Gija-Joseon (Disputed)

Tomb of king Wang Kon, first king of Gorye Dynasty, Korea 王建王陵

Many scholars believe that Gija-Joseon succeeded Dangun Joseon, but some scholars debate the claim.5

  1. King Munseong of Gojoseon, Gija 문성대왕 (r. 1126 B.C.E. - 1082 B.C.E.);자수유/자서여(子須臾/子胥餘)
  2. King Janghye of Gojoseon 장혜왕 (r. 1082 B.C.E. - 1057 B.C.E.);자송 (子松)
  3. King Gyeonghyo of Gojoseon 경효왕 (r. 1057 B.C.E. - 1030 B.C.E.);자순 (子詢)
  4. King Gongjeong of Gojoseon 공정왕 (r. 1030 B.C.E. - 1000 B.C.E.);자백 (子佰)
  5. King Munmu of Gojoseon 문무왕 (r. 1000 B.C.E. - 972 B.C.E.);자춘 (子椿)
  6. King Taewon of Gojoseon 태원왕 (r. 972 B.C.E. - 968 B.C.E.);자예 (子禮)
  7. King Gyeongchang of Gojoseon 경창왕 (r. 968 B.C.E. - 957 B.C.E.);자장 (子莊)
  8. King Heungpyeong of Gojoseon 흥평왕 (r. 957 B.C.E. - 943 B.C.E.);자착 (子捉)
  9. King Cheorwi of Gojoseon 철위왕 (r. 943 B.C.E. - 925 B.C.E.);자주 (子調)
  10. King Seonhye of Gojoseon 선혜왕 (r. 925 B.C.E. - 896 B.C.E.);자색 (子索)
  11. King Uiyang of Gojoseon 의양왕 (r. 896 B.C.E. - 843 B.C.E.);자사 (子師)
  12. King Munhye of Gojoseon 문혜왕 (r. 843 B.C.E. - 793 B.C.E.);자염 (子炎)
  13. King Seongdeok of Gojoseon 성덕왕 (r. 793 B.C.E. - 778 B.C.E.);자월 (子越)
  14. King Dohoe of Gojoseon 도회왕 (r. 778 B.C.E. - 776 B.C.E.);자직 (子職)
  15. King Munyeol of Gojoseon 문열왕 (r. 776 B.C.E. - 761 B.C.E.);자우 (子優)
  16. King Changguk of Gojoseon 창국왕 (r. 761 B.C.E. - 748 B.C.E.);자목 (子睦)
  17. King Museong of Gojoseon 무성왕 (r. 748 B.C.E. - 722 B.C.E.);자평 (子平)
  18. King Jeonggyeong of Gojoseon 정경왕 (r. 722 B.C.E. - 703 B.C.E.);자궐 (子闕)
  19. King Nakseong of Gojoseon 낙성왕 (r. 703 B.C.E. - 675 B.C.E.);자회 (子懷)
  20. King Hyojong of Gojoseon 효종왕 (r. 675 B.C.E. - 658 B.C.E.);자존 (子存)
  21. King Cheonno of Gojoseon 천노왕 (r. 658 B.C.E. - 634 B.C.E.);자효 (子孝)
  22. King Sudo of Gojoseon 수도왕 (r. 634 B.C.E. - 615 B.C.E.);자립 (子立)
  23. King Hwiyang of Gojoseon 휘양왕 (r. 615 B.C.E. - 594 B.C.E.);자통 (子通)
  24. King Bongil of Gojoseon 봉일왕 (r. 594 B.C.E. - 578 B.C.E.);자참 (子參)
  25. King Deokchang of Gojoseon 덕창왕 (r. 578 B.C.E. - 560 B.C.E.);자근 (子僅)
  26. King Suseong of Gojoseon 수성왕 (r. 560 B.C.E. - 519 B.C.E.);자상 (子翔)
  27. King Yeonggeol of Gojoseon 영걸왕 (r. 519 B.C.E. - 503 B.C.E.);자려 (子藜)
  28. King Ilmin of Gojoseon 일민왕 (r. 503 B.C.E. - 486 B.C.E.);자강 (子岡)
  29. King Jese of Gojoseon 제세왕 (r. 486 B.C.E. - 465 B.C.E.);자혼 (子混)
  30. King Cheongguk of Gojoseon 청국왕 (r. 465 B.C.E. - 432 B.C.E.);자 벽정(子璧貞)
  31. King Doguk of Gojoseon 도국왕 (r. 432 B.C.E. - 413 B.C.E.);자징 (子澄)
  32. King Hyeokseong of Gojoseon 혁성왕 (r. 413 B.C.E. - 385 B.C.E.);자수 (子수)
  33. King Hwara of Gojoseon 화라왕 (r. 413 B.C.E. - 385 B.C.E.);자위 (子謂)
  34. King Seolmun of Gojoseon 설문왕 (r. 369 B.C.E. - 361 B.C.E.);자가 (子賀)
  35. King Gyeongsun of Gojoseon 경순왕 (r. 361 B.C.E. - 342 B.C.E.);자화 (子華)
  36. King Gadeok of Gojoseon 가덕왕 (r. 342 B.C.E. - 315 B.C.E.) 기후(箕詡)
  37. King Samno of Gojoseon 삼노왕 (r. 315 B.C.E. - 290 B.C.E.) 기욱(箕煜)
  38. King Hyeonmun of Gojoseon 현문왕 (r. 315 B.C.E. - 290 B.C.E.) 기석(箕釋)
  39. King Jangpyeong of Gojoseon 장평왕 (r. 251 B.C.E. - 232 B.C.E.) 기윤(箕潤)
  40. King Jongtong of Gojoseon 종통왕 (r. 232 B.C.E. - 220 B.C.E.) 기비(箕丕)
  41. King Ae of Gojoseon 애왕 (r. 220 B.C.E. - 195 B.C.E.) 기준(箕準)

Wiman-Joseon

The successor-state of GojoseonWiman Joseon (194 - 108 B.C.E.) began with Wiman's seizure of the throne from Gija Joseon's King Jun and ended with the death of King Ugeo, a grandson of Wiman.

Earliest attested monarchs by contemporaneous records:

  1. Wiman of Gojoseon (Hangul: 위만 Hanja: 衛滿) (194 B.C.E. - 161 B.C.E.)
  2. Unknown (161 B.C.E. - 129 B.C.E.), son of Wiman.
  3. Ugeo of Gojoseon (Hangul: 우거왕 Hanja: 右渠王) (129B.C.E. - 108 B.C.E.), grandson of Wiman.

The Buyeo states

Bukbuyeo

Bukbuyeo (c.239 B.C.E. - 58 B.C.E.) ruled in modern-day Manchuria. The rulers continued to use the titles of Dangun.6 Some records refer to Bukbuyeo (North Buyeo) and Dongbuyeo (East Buyeo). In 37 B.C.E., Go Jumong, a great-grandson of Haemosu Dangun's second son, entered Jolbon Buyeo, Bukbuyeo under a changed state name. Jolbon's ruler, Go Museo, died with no sons and had declared Jumong successor. Thus, Jumong rose to the throne of Bukbuyeo and changed the state's name to Goguryeo.

  1. Haemosu of Buyeo 해모수 (239 - 195 B.C.E.)
  2. Mosuri of Buyeo 모수리 (195 - 170 B.C.E.)
  3. Go Haesa of Buyeo 고해사 (170 - 121 B.C.E.)
  4. Go Uru of Buyeo 고우루 (121 - 86 B.C.E.)
  5. Go Dumak of Bukbuyeo 고두막 (108 - 60 B.C.E.)
  6. Go Museo of Bukbuyeo 고무서 (60 - 58 B.C.E.)
  7. Go Jumong of Bukbuyeo 고주몽 (37 B.C.E. - 19 B.C.E. (Goguryeo))

Dongbuyeo

(c.86 B.C.E.-22 C.E.)

Sejong the Great of Korea

The rulers of Dongbuyeo submitted to Bukbuyeo in 86 B.C.E., and thus used the title Wang ("King"). King Haeburu, the brother of Go Uru Dangun, originally succeeded his brother to the Bukbuyeo throne. The forces of the Han dynasty and the rising of Go Dumak chased King Haeburu, a descendant of Goyeolga Dangun, the last ruler of Gojoseon, to the east.

  1. King Hae Buru 해부루왕 解夫婁王 (86 - 48 B.C.E.)
  2. King Geumwa 금와왕 金蛙王 (48 - 7 B.C.E.)
  3. King Daeso 대소왕 帶素王 (7 B.C.E. - 22 C.E.)

"Later" Buyeo rulers

  • 갈사왕(曷思王) (22- ca.68?)
  • 도두(都頭) later called 우태(于台) (ca.68)

Second century

  • Wigutae/Weichoutai (왕위구태/尉仇台) (?120-?174)
  • 王 夫 台 (왕부태) (ca.167)
  • 울구태(蔚仇台)

Third century

  • 王簡位居(왕간위거) (?174- ?200)
  • 마여(麻余)(?190~234)
  • Uiryo Wang / Yilü (Hangul: 의려 Hanja: 依慮) (234~286)

Fourth century

  • Uira Wang / Yiluo (Hangul: 의라 Hanja: 依羅)
  • Hyon Wang / Xuan (Hangul:현 Hanja: 玄) (?-346/347)
  • 孱王/蔚王 (잔왕)

Samhan Confederacies

Jin (Mahan) Confederation

Tomb of king Wang Geon, first king of Gorye Dynasty, Korea 王建王陵

Scholars dispute the Jin (Mahan) Confederation genealogy.

  1. 기준 (箕準) or King Mugang 무강왕 武康王 (B.C.220-B.C.194)
  2. King Gang* 강왕 康王 (B.C.193-B.C.189)
  3. 기감 (箕龕) or King An 안왕 安王 (B.C.189-B.C.157)
  4. 기식 (箕寔) or King Hye 혜왕 惠王 (B.C.157-B.C.144)
  5. 기무 (箕武) or King Myung 명왕 明王 (B.C.144-B.C.113)
  6. 기형 (箕亨) or King Hyo 효왕 孝王 (B.C.113-B.C.73)
  7. 기섭 (箕燮) or King Yang 양왕 襄王 (B.C.73-B.C.58)
  8. 기훈 (箕勳) or King Won 원왕 元王 (B.C.58-B.C.32)
  9. 기정 (箕貞) or King Gye 계왕 稽王 (B.C.32-B.C.17)
  10. 기학 (箕學)

Three Kingdoms

Goguryeo

Goguryeo (37 B.C.E. - 668 C.E.) existed as one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Goguryeo rulers used the title of Taewang (太王, "Greatest King"). 1 The founder of Goguryeo, considered the 7th Dangun of Bukbuyeo, succeeded the 6th Dangun Gomuseo to the throne of Jolbon Buyeo or Bukbuyeo under a different name.

#Posthumous name2Hangul (Hanja)Personal names 34Period of reign
Legendary line 5
1Dongmyeong동명성왕 (東明聖王), 동명왕 (東明王)Jumong 주몽 (朱蒙), Chumo 추모 (鄒牟), Sanghae 상해 (象解)37 B.C.E.-19 B.C.E.
2Yuri유리왕 (琉璃王), 유리명왕 (琉璃明王)Yuri 유리 (琉璃, 類利), Yuryu 유류 (孺留), Nuri 누리 (累利)19 B.C.E.-18 C.E.
3Daemusin대무신왕 (大武神王), 대해주류왕 (大解朱留王)Muhyul 무휼 (無恤)18-44
4Minjung민중왕 (閔中王)Saekju 색주 (色朱)44-48
5Mobon모본왕 (慕本王)U 우 (憂), Aeru 애루 (愛婁), Mangnae 막래 (莫來)48-53
Great Imperial line
6Taejo태조대왕 (太祖大王), 국조왕 (國祖王)Gung 궁 (宮), Eosu 어수 (於漱)53-146
7Chadae차대왕 (次大王)Suseong 수성 (遂成)146-165
8Sindae신대왕 (新大王)Baekgo 백고 (伯固), Baekgu 백구 (伯句)165-179
Hwando-Guknae line
9Gogukcheon고국천왕 (故國川王), 국양왕 (國襄王)Nammu 남무 (男武)179-197
10Sansang산상왕 山上王Jeong-u 정우 廷優, Wigung 위궁 位宮197-227
11Dongcheon동천왕 東川王, 東襄王Uwigeo 우위거 憂位居, Gyoche 교체 郊彘227-248
12Jungcheon중천왕 中川大王, 中襄王Yeonbul 연불 然弗248-270
13Seocheon서천왕 西川王, 西襄王Yangno 약로 藥盧, Yagu 약우 若友270-292
14Bongsang봉상왕 烽上王, 鴙葛王Sangbu 상부 相夫, Sapsiru 삽시루 插矢婁292-300
15Micheon미천왕 美川王, 好攘王Eulbul 을불 乙弗, Ubul 우불 憂拂300-331
16Gogugwon고국원왕 故國原王Sayu 사유 斯由, Yu 유 劉, Soe 쇠 釗331-371
17Sosurim소수림왕 小獸林王Gubu 구부 丘夫371-384
18Gogugyang고국양왕 故國攘王Yiryeon 이련 伊連, Eojiji 어지지 於只支384-391
19Gwanggaeto the Great국강상광개토경평안호태왕 國彊上廣開土境平安好太王Damdeok 담덕 談德, An 안 安391-413
Pyongyang line
20Jangsu장수왕 長壽王Georyeon 거련 巨連, Goryeon 고련 高璉413-490
21Munjamyeong문자명왕 文咨明王Na-un 나운 羅雲, Go-un 고운 高雲491-519
22Anjang안장왕 安藏王Heung-an 흥안 興安, Go-an 고안 高安519-531
23Anwon안원왕 安原王Bojeong 보정 寶廷, Gojeong 고정 高廷531-545
24Yangwon양원왕 陽原王, 陽崗上好王Pyeongseong 평성 平成545-559
25Pyeongwon평원왕 平原王Yangseong 양성 陽成, Tang 탕 湯, Goyang 고양 高陽559-590
26Yeongyang영양왕 嬰陽王, 평양왕 平陽王Go Won 고원 高元, Daewon 대원 大元590-618
27Yeongnyu영류왕 營留王Go Geonmu 고건무 高建武, Seong 성 成, Gomu 고무 高武618-642
28Bojang보장왕 寶藏王Go Jang 고장 高藏, Bojang 보장 寶藏642-668

Notes: 1 Some of Goguryeo's records of individual kings, especially of the 19th (Gwanggaeto), use the title "Taewang" or "Hotaewang," roughly meaning Greatest King or Very Greatest King. Some argue that the for the translation "Emperior," equivalent of the Chinese title 皇帝, but few accept that. The most complete and oldest existing Korean history text, the Samguk Sagi and the Samguk Yusa, written centuries after Goguryeo was defeated, uses the title "Wang," meaning King.

2 The kings' names generally derive from the location of the king's burial, often differing with the Chinese concept of 諡號.

3 Goguryeo kings had the surname Go, except for the second (Yuri) through fifth (Mobon), who have Hae as surname. According to records, all of the kings belong to the same patrilineal bloodline. Debate continues among scholars about whether the two surnames represent different transcriptions of the same name, or provide evidence of a power struggle.

4 The Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, mention "other names," "birth names," "childhood names," or "personal names."

5 The Samguk Sagi provide the Legendary line names and dates. The Wei shu (History of the Wei dynasty) gives the following names: 朱蒙 Jumong (Zhūméng}, 閭達 Lǘdá, 始閭諧 Shǐlǘxié, 如栗 Rúlí, and 莫來 Mòlái. The legendary line had already been formed with some variants in the early fifth century when Emperor Jangsu built a monument for his father and Goguryeo made contacts with the Northern Wei. The inscription of that monument gives these names: 鄒牟 Chumo, 儒留 Yuryu, and 大朱留 Daejuryu. The connection between those names remains unclear.

Bodeok (Goguryeo-Guk)

  1. Anseung (670-683) 고안승 (高安勝)

Baekje

Baekje (18 B.C.E. - AD 660) belonged to the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Temple names equal personal names, unless noted otherwise.7

#Temple nameHangulHanjaPeriod of reignPersonal nameRelationshipNote
1Onjo온조왕溫祚王October 18 B.C.E. - February 29 C.E.Onjo (溫祚)founderson of Goguryeo's founder Jumong
2Daru다루왕多婁王February 29 - September 77 C.E.first son of Onjo
3Giru기루왕己婁王September 77 - November 128 C.E.first son of Daru
4Gaeru개루왕蓋婁王November 128 - ? 166 C.E.son of Giru
5Chogo초고왕肖古王? 166 - October 214 C.E.son of Gaerualso Sogo (소고왕, 素古王)
6Gusu구수왕仇首王October 214 - ? 234 C.E.first son of Chogoalso Guisu (귀수왕, 貴須王)
7Saban사반왕沙伴王234 C.E.first son of Gusualso Sai (사이왕, 沙伊王)
8Goi고이왕古爾王? 234 - November 286 C.E.second son of Gaerualso Gui (구이군, 久爾君)
9Chaekgye책계왕責稽王November 286 - September 298 C.E.son of Goialso Cheonggye (청계왕, 靑稽王)
10Bunseo분서왕汾西王September 298 - October 304 C.E.first son of Chaekgye
11Biryu비류왕比流王November 304 - October 344 C.E.second son of Gusu
12Gye계왕契王October 344 - September 346 C.E.first son of Bunseo
13Geunchogo근초고왕近肖古王September 346 - November 375 C.E.second son of Biryualso Chogo (초고왕, 肖古王) or Sokgo (속고왕, 速古王)
14Geun-gusu근구수왕近仇首王November 375 - April 384 C.E.son of Geunchogoalso Guisu (귀수왕, 貴首王)
15Chimnyu침류왕枕流王April 384 - November 385 C.E.first son of Geungusu
16Jinsa진사왕辰斯王November 385 - November 392 C.E.younger brother of Chimnyualso Buyeohui (부여휘, 扶餘暉)
17Asin아신왕阿莘王November 392 - September 405 C.E.cousin of Jinsa; first son of Chimnyualso Aha (아화왕, 阿花王)
18Jeonji전지왕腆支王September 405 - March 420 C.E.first son of Asinalso Jikji (직지왕, 直支王) or Jinji (진지왕, 眞支王)
19Gu-isin구이신왕久爾辛王March 420 - December 427 C.E.first son of Jeonji
20Biyu비유왕毗有王December 427 - September 454 C.E.first son of Guisinalso Yeobi (여비, 餘毗)
21Gaero개로왕蓋鹵王September 454 - September 475 C.E.Gyeongsa (경사, 慶司) or Gyeong (경, 慶)first son of Biyualso Yeogyeong (여경, 餘慶)
22Munju문주왕文周王September 475 - September 477 C.E.Modo (모도, 牟都) or Do (도, 都)son of Gaero
23Samgeun삼근왕三斤王September 477 - November 479 C.E.Samgeun (삼근, 三斤), Imgeol (임걸, 壬乞) or Samgeol (삼걸, 三乞)first son of Munjualso Mun-geun (문근왕, 文斤王)
24Dongseong동성왕東城王November 479 - November 501 C.E.Modae (모대, 牟大) or Mamo (마모, 摩牟)cousin of Samgeum
25Muryeong무령왕武寧王November 501 - May 523 C.E.Sama (사마, 斯麻 or 斯摩) or Yung (융, 隆)second son of Dongseongalso Sama (사마왕, 斯麻王), Do (도왕, 嶋王), or Horyeong (호령왕, 虎寧王)
26Seong성왕聖王May 523 - August 554 C.E.Myeong (명, 明)son of Muryeongalso Myeong (명왕, 明王) or Seongmyeong (성명왕, 聖明王)
27Wideok위덕왕威德王August 554 - December 598 C.E.Chang (창, 昌)first son of Seongalso Chang (창왕, 昌王)
28Hye혜왕惠王December 598 - December 599 C.E.Gye (계, 季)second son of Seongalso Heon (헌왕, 獻王)
29Beop법왕法王December 599 - May 600 C.E.Seon (선, 宣) or Hyosun (효순, 孝順)first son of Hye
30Mu무왕武王May 600 - March 641 C.E.personal name Jang (장, 璋) or Seodong or Suhdeong (서동, 薯童)the fourth youngest son of Wideokalso Mugang (무강왕, 武康王) or Mugwang (무광왕,武廣王)
31Uija의자왕義慈王March 641 - August 660first son of Mu

7

Silla

Silla (57 B.C.E. - 935 C.E.) constituted one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. In the early years, the Pak, Seok, and Kim families ruled Silla. Rulers of Silla had various titles, including Isageum, Maripgan, Taewang, Daewang and Yeowang. Like some Baekje kings, some declared themselves emperor.

  1. Hyeokgeose Geoseogan 혁거세거서간 (57 B.C.E.-4 C.E.)
  2. Namhae Chachaung 남해차차웅 (4-24)
  3. Yuri Yisageum (24-57) 유리이사금 儒理尼師今 (Kings Yuri to Heurhae bore the Korean title Isageum, an old word for "ruler")
  4. Talhae Isageum 탈해 이사금 脫解尼師今 (57-80)
  5. Pasa Isageum 파사이사금 婆娑尼師今 (80-112)
  6. Jima Isageum 지마이사금 祗摩尼師今 (112-134)
  7. Ilseong Isageum 일성이사금 逸聖尼師今 (134-154)
  8. Adalla Isageum 아달라이사금 阿達羅尼師今 (154-184)
  9. Beolhyu Isageum 벌휴이사금 伐休尼師今 (184-196)
  10. Naehae Isageum 내해이사금 奈解尼師今 (196-230)
  11. Jobun Isageum 조분이사금 助賁尼師今 (230-247)
  12. Cheomhae Isageum 첨해이사금 沾解尼師今 (247-261)
  13. Michu Isageum 미추이사금 味鄒尼師今 (262-284)
  14. Yurye Isageum 유례이사금 儒禮尼師今 (284-298)
  15. Girim Isageum 기림이사금 基臨尼師今 (298-310)
  16. Heulhae Isageum 흘해이사금 訖解尼師今 (310-356)
  17. Naemul Maripgan 내물마립간 奈勿麻立干 (356-402) (Kings Naemul to Soji bore the Korean title Maripgan, an old word for "ruler")
  18. Silseong Maripgan 실성마립간 實聖麻立干 (402-417)
  19. Nulji Maripgan 눌지마립간 訥祗麻立干 (417-458)
  20. Jabi Maripgan 자비마립간 慈悲麻立干 (458-479)
  21. Soji Maripgan 소지마립간 炤智麻立干 (479-500)
  22. King Jijeung 지증왕 智證王 (500-514) (Kings Jijeung to Gyeongsun bore the title Wang (the modern Korean word for "king"), with the exceptions noted below)
  23. King Beopheung the Great 법흥태왕 法興太王 (514-540) ("King Beopheung the Great" is a translation of Beopheung Taewang, "Taewang" meaning "great king")
  24. King Jinheung the Great 진흥태왕 真興太王 (540-576) ("King Jinheung the Great" is a translation of Jinheung Taewang, "Taewang" meaning "great king")
  25. King Jinji 진지왕 真智王 (576-579)
  26. King Jinpyeong 진평왕 真平王 (579-632)
  27. Queen Seondeok 선덕여왕 善德女王 (632-647) (Queens Seondeok and Jindeok bore the title Yeowang, meaning "queen")
  28. Queen Jindeok 진덕여왕 真德女王 (647-654)
  29. King Muyeol 무열왕 武烈王 (654-661)

Gaya confederacy

Gaya confederacy (42 - 532) consisted of several small statelets. All rulers of Gaya bore the title Wang ("King").

According to a legend recorded in the Samguk Yusa (a collection of folktales, legends, and biographies from early Korean history), in the year 42 C.E., six eggs descended from the heaven with messages that they would be kings. From the six eggs came six boys and within twelve days the boys grew to maturity. One of them, named Suro, became the king of Geumgwan Gaya, and the other five founded the other five Gayas, namely, Daegaya, Seongsan Gaya, Ara Gaya, Goryeong Gaya, and Sogaya.

Geumgwan Gaya

This list is of the Kim Dynasty of Geumgwan Gaya (42-532). Given the legend that records the the founding of Geumgwan Gaya in 42 C.E. when six eggs descended from heaven, the period of Suro's reign (42-199) should not be taken to imply that he was a single historical person who lived for over 150 years.

#Temple nameHangulHanjaPeriod of reign
1Suro of Geumgwan Gaya수로왕首露王(42-199)
2Geodeung of Geumgwan Gaya거등왕居登王(199-259)
3Mapum of Geumgwan Gaya마품왕麻品王(259-291)
4Geojilmi of Geumgwan Gaya거질미왕居叱彌王(291-346)
5Isipum of Geumgwan Gaya이시품왕伊尸品王(346-407)
6Jwaji of Geumgwan Gaya좌지왕坐知王(407-421)
7Chwihui of Geumgwan Gaya취희왕吹希王(421-451)
8Jilji of Geumgwan Gaya질지왕銍知王(451-492)
9Gyeomji of Geumgwan Gaya겸지왕鉗知王(492-521)
10Guhyeong of Geumgwan Gaya구형왕仇衡王(521-532)

Daegaya

Only four of the sixteen kings of Daegaya (42 - 562) are known by name.

1. King Ijinashi of Daegaya 이진아시왕, also known as Naejinjuji 내진주지 or Noejiljuil 뇌질주일
9. King Inoe of Daegaya 이뇌왕, 8th generation descendant of Yi Jinashi
?. King Haji of Daegaya 하지왕, generation unknown; possibly also known as King Gasil; sent emissary to 南齊 China in 479, joined Baekje to aid Silla from Goguryeo attack in 481.
16. King Doseolji of Daegaya 도설지왕, submitted to Silla

North-South States

Unified (Later) Silla

  1. King Munmu 문무왕 文武王 (661-681)
  2. King Sinmun 신문왕 神文王 (681-691)
  3. King Hyoso 효소왕 孝昭王 (692-702)
  4. King Seongdeok the Great 성덕왕 聖德王 (702-737)
  5. King Hyoseong 효성왕 孝成王 (737-742)
  6. King Gyeongdeok 경덕왕 景德王 (742-765)
  7. King Hyegong 혜공왕 惠恭王 (765-780)
  8. King Seondeok 선덕왕 宣德王 (780-785)
  9. King Wonseong 원성왕 元聖王 (785-798)
  10. King Soseong 소성왕 昭聖王 (798-800)
  11. King Aejang 애장왕 哀莊王 (800-809)
  12. King Heondeok 헌덕왕 憲德王 (809-826)
  13. King Heungdeok 흥덕왕 興德王 (826-836)
  14. King Huigang 희강왕 僖康王 (836-838)
  15. King Minae 민애왕 閔哀王 (838-839)
  16. King Sinmu 신무왕 神武王 (839)
  17. King Munseong 문성왕 文聖王 (839-857)
  18. King Heonan 헌안왕 憲安王 (857-861)
  19. King Gyeongmun 경문왕 景文王 (861-875)
  20. King Heongang 헌강왕 憲康王 (875-886)
  21. King Jeonggang 정강왕 定康王 (886-887)
  22. Queen Jinseong 진성여왕 真聖女王 (887-897) (Queen Jinseong bore the Korean title Yeowang, which means "queen")
  23. King Hyogong 효공왕 孝恭王 (897-912)
  24. King Sindeok 신덕왕 神德王 (913-917)
  25. King Gyeongmyeong 경명왕 景明王 (917-924)
  26. King Gyeongae 경애왕 景哀王 (924-927)
  27. King Gyeongsun 경순왕 敬順王 (927-935)

Balhae

Balhae (669-926) followed Goguryeo in the northern territories when Silla unified half of the Korean Peninsula. The founder called the state Jin, claiming the title of the successor to Goguryeo, but after establishing relations with China Jin received the name Balhae (Bohai in Chinese). The rulers used the title Daewang ("king") and had the temple name of either -jo or -jong, though deposed rulers accounted for an exception.

#Personal namePeriod of reignEra name (年號)Posthumous name (諡號)Temple name (廟號)
WesternizedHangul/HanjaWesternizedHangul/HanjaWesternizedHangul/HanjaWesternizedHangul/Hanja
0Dae Jung-sang대중상
大仲象
668-699Junggwang중광
重光
Yeol
烈王
Sejo세조
世祖
1Dae Joyeong대조영
大祚榮
699-718Cheontong천통
天統
Go고왕
高王
Taejo태조
太祖
2Dae Muye대무예
大武藝
718-737Inan인안
仁安
Mu무왕
武王
Kwangjong광종
光宗
3Dae Heummu대흠무
大欽茂
737-793Daeheung *대흥
大興 *
Mun문왕
文王
Sejong세종
世宗
4Dae Won-ui대원의
大元義
793-794NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNone
5Dae Hwa-yeo대화여
大華與
794Jungheung중흥
中興
Seong성왕
成王
Injong인종
仁宗
6Dae Sung-rin대숭린
大嵩璘
794-808Jeongryeok정력
正曆
Gang강왕
康王
Mokjong목종
穆宗
7Dae Won-yu대원유
大元瑜
808-812Yeongdeok영덕
永德
Jeong정왕
定王
Uijong의종
毅宗
8Dae Eon-ui대언의
大言義
812-817?Jujak주작
朱雀
Hui희왕
僖王
Kangjong강종
康宗
9Dae Myeongchung대명충
大明忠
817?-818?Taesi태시
太始
Gan간왕
簡王
Cheoljong철종
哲宗
10Dae Insu대인수
大仁秀
818?-830Geonheung건흥
建興
Seon선왕
宣王
Seongjong성종
聖宗
11Dae Ijin대이진
大彝震
830-857Hamhwa함화
咸和
Hwa
Jangjong장종
莊宗
12Dae Geonhwang대건황
大虔晃
857-871Daejeong대정
大定
An안왕
安王
Soonjong순종
順宗
13Dae Hyeonseok대현석
大玄錫
871-895Cheonbok천복
天福
Gyeong경왕
景王
Myeongjong명종
明宗
14Dae Wihae대위해
大瑋瑎
895-906NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNone
15Dae Inseon대인선
大諲譔
906-926Cheongtae청태
淸泰
Ae애왕
哀王
NoneNone

Note : Dae Heummu had another era name Boryeok (Hangul :보력 Hanja: 寶曆; 774-?)

Later Balhae

Later Balhae (927-936), the first successor-state of Balhae, rose almost immediately after its fall. The founder, Dae Gwang Hyun, a member of the royal family and possibly a prince, used his position a

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